Do you know which type of Down Syndrome can be inherited? By this I mean passed from the mother to the child. Down Syndrome is caused by having extra genetic material in the body. We have three types of Down Syndrome; Trisomy 21, Mosaic and Translocation.
First, translocation type of Down syndrome which also happens to be the rarest type can be passed from a parent to their child. This type of Down Syndrome will occur when the extra chromosome or genetic material in chromosome 21 breaks off and attaches itself to a random chromosome for example, number 14.
Sometimes, an individual will have the right number of chromosomes, that is, 46 of them. However, these chromosomes become rearranged such that some chromosomes are not where they are supposed to be. This type of Down syndrome is called Balanced Translocation.
Individuals with Balanced Translocation do not show any signs of Down Syndrome. However, they will pass the translocation to the children resulting to Down Syndrome. Translocation Down syndrome does not have any symptoms and a blood test is the only way to determine if a child has the condition or not. If a child is found to have the translocation, tests are done to determine if it is inherited or not.
Additionally,individuals with balanced translocation may have difficulties in conceiving, suffer miscarriages as well as increased chances of having children with health problems. Parents may donate the right amount of chromosomes during pregnancy. The downside is there is a risk of donating too much or too little genetic material during pregnancy.
Lastly, this situation is not something that can be controlled. It is a probability that depends on the type of rearrangement and the chromosomes involved.